The causes of bladder dysfunctions are varied and often occur as a result of neurological diseases or injuries of the brain or the nerves.
Bladder emptying is controlled by nerve impulses of the spinal cord. The musculus detrusor, the muscular layer of the bladder, consists of smooth muscles, and along with the pelvic floor muscles and the urethra, forms the locking system of the urinary bladder.
When the bladder is filled with approx. 250 ml, receptors of the healthy bladder wall give the stretching of the bladder to the brainstem.
An inhibitory mechanism, which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, prevents the contraction of the muscles of the urinary bladder in order to avoid a premature bladder emptying. Only when the cerebrum sends information to the blowing centre in the spinal, bladder emptying starts. The muscles of the bladder constrict and the bladder sphincter opens. Only when the external sphincter is willingly opened it comes to bladder emptying. If the interaction of all involved muscles and nerves is disrupted the result is a bladder dysfunction.
The following conditions are given as examples.